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VTU NOTES
Subject code
21EC44
Semester
4th

## Module - 1

AMPLITUDE MODULATION: Introduction, Amplitude Modulation: Time & Frequency Domain description, Switching modulator, Envelop detector. DOUBLE SIDE BAND-SUPPRESSED CARRIER MODULATION: Time and Frequency Domain description, Ring modulator, Coherent detection, Costas Receiver, Quadrature Carrier Multiplexing. SINGLE SIDE–BAND AND VESTIGIAL SIDEBAND METHODS OF MODULATION: SSB Modulation, VSB Modulation, Frequency Translation, Frequency Division Multiplexing, Theme Example: VSB Transmission of Analog and Digital Television. [Text1: 3.1 to 3.8] RBT Level: L1, L2, L3

## Module - 2

ANGLE MODULATION: Basic definitions, Frequency Modulation: Narrow Band FM, Wide Band FM, Transmission bandwidth of FM Signals, Generation of FM Signals, Demodulation of FM Signals, FM Stereo Multiplexing, Phase–Locked Loop: Nonlinear model of PLL, Linear model of PLL, Nonlinear Effects in FM Systems. The Superheterodyne Receiver [Text1: 4.1 to 4.6] RBT Level: L1, L2, L3

## Module - 3

NOISE: Shot Noise, Thermal noise, White Noise, Noise Equivalent Bandwidth. NOISE IN ANALOG MODULATION: Introduction, Receiver Model, Noise in DSB-SC receivers. Noise in AM receivers, Threshold effect, Noise in FM receivers, Capture effect, FM threshold effect, FM threshold reduction, Preemphasis and De-emphasis in FM (Text1: 5.10, 6.1 to 6.6) RBT Level: L1, L2, L3

## Module - 4

SAMPLING AND QUANTIZATION: Introduction, Why Digitize Analog Sources? The Low pass Sampling process Pulse Amplitude Modulation. Time Division Multiplexing, Pulse-Position Modulation, Generation of PPM Waves, Detection of PPM Waves. (Text1: 7.1 to 7.7 )RBT Level: L1, L2, L3

## Module - 5

SAMPLING AND QUANTIZATION (Contd): The Quantization Random Process, Quantization Noise, Pulse–Code Modulation: Sampling, Quantization, Encoding, Regeneration, Decoding, Filtering, Multiplexing; Delta Modulation (Text1: 7.8 to 7.10), Application examples – (a) Video + MPEG (Text1:7.11) and (b) Vocoders (refer Section 6.8 of Reference Book 1) 1] RBT Level: L1, L2, L3