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Semester :  VI

Course Code : 18CV656

CIE Marks : 40                       SEE Marks : 60

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Land: Land as a resource, types of lands, conservation of land forms, deforestation, effect of land use changes. Soil health, ecological and economic importance of soil, impact of soil degradation on agriculture and food security, need for soil conservation, sustainable land use planning.


Water: Global water resources, Indian water resources, Resources system planning. Water use sectors- domestic, industrial, agriculture. Water deficit and water surplus basins in India, equitable distribution, Inter-basin water transfers, Interlinking of rivers – Himalayan component, peninsular component, issues involved. Ground water, its potential in India, conjunctive use, recharge of ground water. Contamination of ground water, sea water ingress, problems and solutions.


Air: Introduction, composition, sources and classification of air pollutants, National Ambient Air quality standards (NAAQS), Air quality index, effects of air pollution on human health. Economic effects of air pollution. Control of air pollution by equipment, smoke and its control. Ozone depletion –impacts, photochemical changes.
Minerals and rocks: Minerals, important rock forming minerals like Quartz, Mica, Feldspar and Amphibole, lithification & metamorphism, weathering: physical, biogeochemical processes, erosion, agents of erosion.


Biodiversity: Introduction, Flora and Fauna, Importance of biodiversity, Economic values-medicinal plants, drugs, fisheries biogeochemical cycling. Threat to biodiversity, natural & anthropogenic disturbance, habitat loss. Conservation of biodiversity, National parks, wild life sanctuaries, zoological gardens, gene banks, pollen culture, ecological restoration, social forestry. Ecosystem: Definition, Types: forest, grass land, marine, desert, wetlands, estuarine, lotic, lentic. Abiotic & biotic components of eco system.


Global warming: concept, indicators, factors and effects. Global climate change-indicators, health impacts, effect on biodiversity. Introduction to global efforts in conservation of biodiversity.
EIA: Regulations in India, status of EIA in India, list of projects needing environmental clearance under EIA notifications. Case study of hydro power/ thermal power projects.
Updated on 29.03.2021 2/2