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# Engineering Physics

VTU UNIVERSITY
Subject code
21PHY12/ 21PHY22
Semester
1st / 2nd Sem

## Engineering Physics21PHY12/22

### Module-1

Oscillations and Waves: Free Oscillations: Basics of SHM, derivation of differential equation for SHM, Mechanical simple harmonic oscillators (spring constant by series and parallel combination), Equation of motion for free oscillations, Natural frequency of oscillations. Damped Oscillations: Theory of damped oscillations (derivation), over damping, critical & under damping (only graphical representation), quality factor. ForcedOscillations: Theory of forced oscillations (derivation) and resonance, sharpness of resonance. Shock waves: Mach number, Properties of Shock waves, Construction and working of Reddy shock tube, applications of shock waves, Numerical problems.

### Module-2

Modern Physics & Quantum Mechanics: Introduction to blackbody radiation spectrum- Wien’s law, Rayleigh Jean’s law, Stefan -Boltzmann law and Planck’s law (qualitative), Deduction of Wien’s law and Rayleigh Jeans law from Planck’s law. Wave-Particle dualism, de-Broglie hypothesis, de-Broglie wavelength. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle and its physical significance, Application of uncertainty principle-Non-existence of electron in the nucleus (relativistic case), Wave function- Properties, Physical significance, Probability density, Normalization, Eigen values and Eigen functions. Time independent Schrödinger wave equation. Particle in a box- Energy Eigen values and probability densities, Numerical problems.

### Module-3

Lasers & Optical Fibers: 08 Hours Lasers: Interaction of radiation with matter, Einstein’s coefficients (derivation of expression for energy density). Requisites of a Laser system. Conditions for Laser action. Principle, Construction and working of CO2 and semiconductor Lasers. Application of Lasers in Defence (Laser range finder) and medical applications- Eye surgery and skin treatment. Optical Fibers: Propagation mechanism, angle of acceptance, Numerical aperture, Modes of propagation, Types of optical fibers, Attenuation and Mention of expression for attenuation coefficient. Discussion of block diagram of point to point communication, Optical fiber sensors- Intensity based displacement sensor and Temperature sensor based on phase modulation, Merits and demerits, Numerical problems.

### Module-4

Modern Physics & Quantum Mechanics: Introduction to blackbody radiation spectrum- Wien’s law, Rayleigh Jean’s law, Stefan -Boltzmann law and Planck’s law (qualitative), Deduction of Wien’s law and Rayleigh Jeans law from Planck’s law. Wave-Particle dualism, deBroglie hypothesis, de-Broglie wavelength. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle and its physical significance, Application of uncertainty principle-Non-existence of electron in the nucleus (relativistic case), Wave functionProperties, Physical significance, Probability density, Normalization, Eigen values and Eigen functions. Time independent Schrödinger wave equation. Particle in a box- Energy Eigen values and probability densities, Numerical problems.

### Module-5

Material Characterization Techniques and Instrumentation: 08 Hours Introduction to materials: Nanomaterials and nanocomposites. Principle, construction and working of X-ray Diffractometer, crystal size determination by Scherrer equation. Principle, construction, working and applications of -Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscope (XPS), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) Numerical problems