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VTU NOTES
Subject code
21ME43
Semester
4th

## Module - 1

Introduction: Definition and properties, types of fluids, pressure at a point in static fluid, variation of pressure, Pascal’s Law, (To be reviewed in class but not for examination) Pressure- absolute, gauge, vacuum, pressure measurement by manometers and gauges, hydrostatic pressure on plane submerged bodies. Buoyance and metacentre, Stability of submerged bodies Fluid Kinematics: Velocity of fluid particle, types of fluid flow, streamlines, path-lines and streak-lines continuity equation, acceleration of fluid particle, strain rate, vorticity, stream function, potential function, Circulation, Reynolds transport theorem

## Module - 2

Fluid Dynamics: Introduction, Forces acting on fluid in motion, Linear momentum equation, Impact of jets, Moment of momentum equation, Euler’s equation of motion along a streamline, Bernoulli’s equation – assumptions and limitations. Introduction to Navier-Stokes equation, Venturi-meters, orifice- meters, rectangular and triangular notches, pitot tubes, Rota-meter, electromagnetic flow mete

## Module - 3

Laminar and Turbulent flow: Flow through circular pipe, between parallel plates, Power absorbed in viscous flow in bearings, Poiseuille equation Loss of head due to friction in pipes, Major and minor losses, pipes in series and parallel.

## Module - 4

Flow over bodies: Development of boundary layer, Lift and Drag, Flow around circular cylinders, spheres, aerofoils and flat plates, Streamlined and bluff bodies, boundary layer separation and its control. Dimensional Analysis: Derived quantities, dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional homogeneity, Rayleigh method, Buckingham Pi-theorem, dimensionless numbers, similitude, types of similitude.

## Module - 5

Compressible flows: Speed of sound, adiabatic and isentropic steady flow, Isentropic flow with area change stagnation and sonic properties, normal and oblique shocks, flow through nozzles. Introduction to CFD: Necessity, limitations, philosophy behind CFD, applications