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Semester :  VI

Course Code : 18CV641

CIE Marks : 40                       SEE Marks : 60


 Purushothama Raj P, “Ground Improvement Techniques”, Laxmi Publications, New Delhi.




Formation and Development of Ground : Introduction, Formation of Rock, soil and soil profile, Soil distribution in India, Alterations of ground after formation, Reclaimed soils, Natural offshore deposits; Ground Improvement Potential – Hazardous ground conditions, poor ground conditions, favourable ground conditions, Alternative Approaches, Geotechnical processes. Compaction: Introduction, compaction mechanics, Field procedure, surface compaction, Dynamic Compaction, selection of field compaction procedures, compaction quality control.


Drainage Methods: Introduction, Seepage, filter requirements, ground water and seepage control, methods of dewatering systems, Design of dewatering system including pipe line effects of dewatering. Drains, different types of drains. Pre-compression and Vertical Drains: Importance, Vertical drains, Sand drains, Drainage of slopes, Electro kinetic dewatering, Preloading.


Chemical Modification-I: Definition, cement stabilization, sandwich technique, admixtures. Hydration effect of cement stabilization on permeability, Swelling and shrinkage and strength and deformation characteristics. Criteria for cement stabilization. Stabilization using Fly ash.Chemical Modification-Ii: Lime stabilization – suitability, process, criteria for lime stabilization. Other chemicals like chlorides, hydroxides, lignin and hydrofluoric acid. Properties of chemical components, reactions and effects. Bitumen, tar or asphalt in stabilization.


Vibration Methods: Introduction, Vibro compaction – blasting, vibratory probe, Vibro displacement compaction – displacement piles, vibro flotation, sand compaction piles, stone columns, heavy tamping Grouting And Injection: Introduction, Effect of grouting. Chemicals and materials used. Types of grouting.Grouting procedure, Applications of grouting.


Geosynthetics: Introduction, Geosynthetic types, properties of Geosynthetics – materials and fibre properties, Geometrical aspects, mechanical properties, Hydraulic properties, Durability ; Applications of Geosynthetics – Separation, Filtration and Fluid Transmission, Reinforcement, Miscellaneous Methods (Only Concepts & Uses): Soil reinforcement, Thermal methods, Ground improvement by confinement – Crib walls, Gabions and Mattresses, Anchors, Rock bolts and soil nailing.Stone Column, Micro piles.