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basic surveying

Semester :  III

Course Code : 18CV35

CIE Marks : 40                       SEE Marks : 60




Introduction: Definition of surveying, Objectives and importance of surveying. Classification of surveys. Principles of surveying. Units of measurements, Surveying measurements and errors, types of errors, precision and accuracy. Classification of maps, map scale, conventional symbols, topographic maps, map layout, Survey of India Map numbering systems.
Measurement of Horizontal Distances: Measuring tape and types. Measurement using tapes, Taping on level ground and sloping ground. Errors and corrections in tape measurements, ranging of lines, direct and indirect methods of ranging, Electronic distance measurement, basic principle. Booking of tape survey work, Field book, entries, Conventional symbols, Obstacles in tape survey, Numerical problems.


Measurement of Directions and Angles: Compass survey: Basic definitions; meridians, bearings, magnetic and True bearings. Prismatic and surveyor’s compasses, temporary adjustments, declination. Quadrantal bearings, whole circle bearings, local attraction and related problems Traversing: Traverse Survey and Computations: Latitudes and departures, rectangular coordinates, Traverse adjustments, Bowditch rule and transit rule, Numerical Problems. 


Leveling: Basic terms and definitions, Methods of leveling, Dumpy level, auto level, digital and laser levels. Curvature and refraction corrections. Booking and reduction of levels. Differential leveling, profile levelling, fly leveling, check leveling, reciprocal leveling.


Plane Table Surveying: Plane table and accessories, Advantages and limitations of plane table survey, Orientation and methods of orientation, Methods of plotting – Radiation, Intersection, Traversing, Resection method, Two-point and three-point problems, Solution to the two-point problem by graphical method, Solution to three-point problem Bessel’s graphical method, Errors in plane table survey.


Areas and Volumes: Measurement of the area by dividing the area into geometrical figures, the area from offsets, mid ordinate rule, trapezoidal and Simpson’s one-third rule, area from co-ordinates, introduction to planimeter, digital planimeter. Measurement of volumes- trapezoidal and prismoidal formula.
Contouring: Contours, Methods of contouring, Interpolation of contours, contour gradient, characteristics of contours and uses