# FLUID MECHANICS

Semester : III

Course Code : 18CV33

CIE Marks : 40 SEE Marks : 60

## FLUIDS MECHANICS

18CV33

#### SYLLABUS

### Module-1

**Fluids & Their Properties:** Concept of fluid, Systems of units. Properties of fluid; Mass density, Specific weight, Specific gravity, Specific volume, Viscosity, Newton’s law of viscosity (theory & problems), Cohesion, Adhesion, Surface tension, Pressure inside a water droplet, soap bubble and liquid jet. Numerical problems,& Capillarity. The capillary rise in a vertical tube and between two plane surfaces (theory & problems). Vapour pressure of liquid, compressibility and bulk modulus, Fluid as a continuum,**Fluid Pressure and Its Measurements:** Definition of pressure, Pressure at a point, Pascal’s law, Variation of pressure with depth. Types of pressure. Measurement of pressure using simple, differential & inclined manometers (theory & problems). Introduction to Mechanical and electronic pressure measuring devices.

### Module-2

**Hydrostatic forces on Surfaces:** Definition, Total pressure, the centre of pressure, the total pressure on a horizontal, vertical and inclined plane surface, the total pressure on curved surfaces, water pressure on gravity dams, Lock gates. Numerical Problems.**Fundamentals of fluid flow (Kinematics):** Introduction. Methods of describing fluid motion. Velocity and Total acceleration of a fluid particle. Types of fluid flow, Description of flow pattern. Basic principles of fluid flow, three-dimensional continuity equation in a Cartesian coordinate system. Derivation for Rotational and irrational motion. Potential function, stream function, orthogonality of streamlines and equipotential lines. Numerical problems on Stream function and velocity potential. Introduction to flow net.

### Module-3

**Fluid Dynamics:** Introduction. Forces acting on the fluid in motion. Euler’s equation of motion along a streamline and Bernoulli’s equation. Assumptions and limitations of Bernoulli’s equation. Modified Bernoulli’s equation. Problems on applications of Bernoulli’s equation (with and without losses). Momentum equation problems on pipe bends.**Applications:** Introduction. Venturi meter, Orifice meter, Pitot tube. Numerical Problems.

### Module-4

**Orifice and Mouthpiece:** Introduction, classification, flow through an orifice, hydraulic coefficients and Numerical problems. Mouthpiece, classification, Borda’s Mouthpiece (No problems). **Notches and Weirs:** Introduction. Classification, discharge over rectangular, triangular, trapezoidal notches, Cippoletti notch, broad crested weirs. Numerical problems. Ventilation of weirs, submerged weirs.

### Module-5

**Flow-through Pipes:** Introduction. Major and minor losses in pipe flow. Darcy- Weis bach equation for head loss due to friction in a pipe. Pipes in series, pipes in parallel, equivalent pipe problems. Minor losses in pipe flow, the equation for head loss due to sudden expansion. Numerical problems. Hydraulic gradient line, energy gradient line. Numerical problems, Pipe Networks, Hardy Cross method (No problems on pipe networks),**Surge Analysis in Pipes:** Water hammer in pipes, equations for pressure rise due to gradual valve closure and sudden closure for rigid and elastic pipes. Problems.

## textbooks recommended by vtu

- P N Modi and S M Seth, “Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics, including Hydraulic Machines”, 20th edition, 2015, Standard Book House, New Delhi
- R.K. Bansal, “A Text book of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines”, Laxmi Publications, New Delhi
- S K SOM and G Biswas, “Introduction to Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Machines”, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi