Semester : IV
Course Code : 18ME43
CIE Marks : 40 SEE Marks : 60
Basics: Introduction, Properties of fluids-mass density, weight density, specific volume, specific gravity, viscosity, surface tension, capillarity, vapour pressure, compressibility and bulk modulus. Concept of continuum, types of fluids etc., pressure at a point in the static mass of fluid, variation of pressure. Pascal’s law, absolute, gauge, atmospheric and vacuum pressures; pressure measurement by simple, differential manometers and mechanical gauges. Fluid Statics: Total pressure and centre of pressure for horizontal plane, vertical plane surface and inclined plane surface submerged in static fluid.
Buoyancy, center of buoyancy, meta center and meta centric height its application. Fluid Kinematics: Velocity of fluid particle, types of fluid flow, description of flow, continuity equation, Coordinate free form, acceleration of fluid particle, rotational & irrotational flow, Laplace’s equation in velocity potential and Poisson’s equation in stream function, flow net.
Fluid Dynamics; Introduction. Forces acting on fluid in motion. Euler’s equation of motion along a streamline. Integration of Euler’s equation to obtain Bernoulli’s equation, Assumptions and limitations of Bernoulli’s equation. Introduction to Navier-Stokes equation. Application of Bernoulli’s theorem such as venturi-meter, orifice meter, rectangular and triangular notch, pitot tube. Laminar and turbulent flow: Flow through circular pipe, between parallel plates, Power absorbed in viscous flow in bearings, Poiseuille equation – velocity profile loss of head due to friction in viscous flow. Reynolds’s experiment, frictional loss in pipe flow. Introduction to turbulence, characteristics of turbulent flow, laminarturbulent transition major and minor losses.
Flow over bodies: Development of boundary layer, Prandtl‟s boundary layer equations, Blasius solution, integral momentum equation, drag on a flat plate, boundary layer separation and its control, streamlined and bluff bodies -flow around circular bodies and aero foils, calculation of lift and drag. Dimensional analysis: Introduction, derived quantities, dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional homogeneity, Rayleigh’s method, Buckingham Pi-theorem, dimensionless numbers, similitude, types of similitude.
Compressible Flows: Introduction, thermodynamic relations of perfect gases, internal energy and enthalpy, speed of sound, pressure field due to a moving source, basic Equations for one-dimensional flow, stagnation and sonic properties, normal and oblique shocks. Introduction to CFD: Necessity, limitations, philosophy behind CFD, applications.