# engineering physics

Semester : I/II

Course Code : 18PHY12/22

CIE Marks : 40 SEE Marks : 60

Engineering physics(18PHY12/22) will enable students to

- Learn the basic concepts in physics which are very much essential in understanding and solving engineering-related challenges.
- Gain the knowledge of newer concepts in modern physics for a better appreciation of modern technology.

Here you can Download VTU study material such as Textbooks, Notes, Previous year Question papers. Download Physics Notes below.

## engineering physics

18phy12/22

### SYLLABUS

#### module-1

**Oscillations and Waves****Free Oscillations:** Definition of SHM, derivation of equation for SHM, Mechanical simple harmonic oscillators (mass suspended to spring oscillator), complex notation and phasor representation of simple harmonic motion. Equation of motion for free oscillations, Natural frequency of oscillations. **Damped and forced oscillations:** Theory of damped oscillations: over damping, critical & under damping, quality factor. Theory of forced oscillations and resonance, Sharpness of resonance. One example for mechanical resonance.**Shock waves:** Mach number, Properties of Shock waves, control volume. Laws of conservation of mass, energy and momentum. Construction and working of Reddy shock tube, applications of shock waves. Numerical problem

#### module-2

**Elastic properties of materials:****Elasticity:** Concept of elasticity, plasticity, stress, strain, tensile stress, shear stress, compressive stress, strain hardening and strain softening, failure (fracture/fatigue), Hooke’s law, different elastic moduli: Poisson’s ratio, Expression for Young’s modulus (Y), Bulk modulus (K) and Rigidity modulus (n) in terms of and B. Relation between Y, and K, Limits of Poisson’s ratio.**Bending of beams:** Neutral surface and neutral plane, Derivation of expression for bending moment. Bending moment of a beam with a circular and rectangular cross-section. Single cantilever, derivation of expression for Young’s modulus.**Torsion of cylinder:** Expression for a couple per unit twist of a solid cylinder (Derivation), Torsional pendulum-Expression for a period of oscillation. Numerical problems.

#### module-3

**Maxwell’s equations, EM waves and Optical fibers**

Maxwell’s equations: Fundamentals of vector calculus. Divergence and curl of electric field and magnetic field (static), Gauss’ divergence theorem and Stokes’ theorem. Description of laws of electrostatics, magnetism and Faraday’s laws of EMI. Current density & equation of Continuity; displacement current (with derivation) Maxwell’s equations in vacuum.**EM Waves:** The wave equation in differential form in free space (Derivation of the equation using Maxwell’s equations), Plane electromagnetic waves in vacuum, their transverse nature, the polarization of EM waves (Qualitative).**Optical fibers:** Propagation mechanism, angle of acceptance. Numerical aperture. Modes of propagation and Types of optical fibers. Attenuation: Causes of attenuation and Mention of expression for attenuation coefficient. Discussion of a block diagram of point to point communication. Merits and demerits Numerical problems.

#### module-4

**Quantum Mechanics and Lasers****Quantum mechanics:** Introduction to Quantum mechanics, Wave nature of particles, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle and applications (non-confinement of an electron in the nucleus), Schrodinger time-independent wave equation, Significance of Wave function, Normalization, Particle in a box, Energy eigenvalues of a particle in a box and probability densities.**Lasers:** Review of spontaneous and stimulated processes, Einstein’s coefficients (derivation of expression for energy density). Requisites of a Laser system. Conditions for laser action. Principle, Construction and working of CO, and semiconductor Lasers. Application of Lasers in Defense (Laser range finder) and Engineering (Data storage). Numerical problems

#### module-5

**Material science**

**Quantum Free electron theory of metals:**Review of classical free electron theory, mention of failures. Assumptions of Quantum Free electron theory, Mention of expression for density of states, Fermi-Dirac statistics (qualitative), Fermi factor, Fermi level, Derivation of the expression for Fermi energy, Success of QFET.

**Physics of Semiconductor:**Fermi level in intrinsic semiconductors, Expression for the concentration of electrons in the conduction band, Hole concentration in valance band (only mention the expression), Conductivity of semiconductors(derivation), Hall effect, Expression for Hall coefficient (derivation)

**Dielectric materials:**polar and non-polar dielectrics, internal fields in a solid, Clausius-Mossotti equation(Derivation), mention of solid, liquid and gaseous dielectrics with one example each. Application of dielectrics in transformers. Numerical problems.